Google stated that it is okay and normal to have the same image on multiple pages of your website. It will not affect your ranking if you share an image with a different file name but the same content, on more than one page on your site.
Google’s John Mueller replied to a question on Twitter that enquired him if a site has one picture that is shown on two pages, then whether there is an issue of declaring that for both the pages with sitemap.xml. John said that instead of being a problem, it is a common thing to happen.
When you upload the same image to your server, either intentionally or accidentally, it creates a new file name. You can reference that same image, along with a separate file name on different posts. You can use the same filename even without any SEO problems. It is best to have an image referenced for SEO purposes.
See the forum discussion at Twitter.